In my book I use the distinction between perception and cognition to reject Bayesian Cue Integration, and advance a novel account of visual shape and visual scale.

Introduction (Preface & Chapter 1)

I outline the distinction between perception and cognition, and give an overview of how cognitive influences were rejected, and later reincorporated back into, 3D vision.

Visual Shape (Chapter 2 & Chapter 3)

Traditional theories argue that 3D vision integrates binocular disparity, perspective, and shading into a single coherent percept. I argue instead that visual shape is a two stage process, with perspective and shading only introduced at the level of cognition.

Visual Scale (Chapter 4)

I argue that visual cues to scale are ineffective (vergence, accommodation, motion parallax, vertical disparities), limited in application (ground plane), or merely cognitive (familiar size), leading me to suggest that visual scale is purely cognitive.

The Preface, Chapter 1, and Chapter 2, are available above. Please email me for Chapters 3 and 4. The book is available on, but I take no responsibility for this site.